Neutrophils can be retained in the pulmonary microvasculature due to their low deformability, resulting in having a higher concentration there than in the systemic circulation, even in normal lungs. It is thought that this high concentration of the cells facilitates their effective recruitment to sites of inflammation. Thus, in order to understand their role in the immune system in the lungs, where blood comes in contact with outer air via thin septa of alveoli, it is important to clarify their flow characteristics in the pulmonary capillary bed. However, in contrast to erythrocytes in systemic capillaries, little research has been performed on the flow of neutrophils in pulmonary capillaries. This may be partly because no complete rheological model of the cell has been established yet, and partly because pulmonary capillaries are very short and closely interconnected, forming a complicated three-dimensional network, in addition to difficulty in in vivo experimental observations. Moreover, the neutrophils change their mechanical properties and show active motion in response to some chemoattractants. In this article, various proposed rheological models of the neutrophil, flow models of a cell through a single capillary segment, and alveolar capillary network models are introduced, aiming at the numerical simulation of neutrophil transport in the pulmonary microvasculature.
- Pulmonary microvasculature
- Viscoelastic material
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine