Sotos syndrome is characterized by prenatal and postnatal overgrowth, characteristic craniofacial features and mental retardation. Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 causes Sotos syndrome. Recently, two microdeletions encompassing Nuclear Factor I-X (NFIX) and a nonsense mutation in NFIX have been found in three individuals with Sotos-like overgrowth features, suggesting possible involvements of NFIX abnormalities in Sotos-like features. Interestingly, seven frameshift and two splice site mutations in NFIX have also been found in nine individuals with Marshall-Smith syndrome. In this study, 48 individuals who were suspected as Sotos syndrome but showing no NSD1 abnormalities were examined for NFIX mutations by high-resolution melt analysis. We identified two heterozygous missense mutations in the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NFIX protein. Both mutations occurred at evolutionally conserved amino acids. The c.179T>C (p.Leu60Pro) mutation occurred de novo and the c.362G>C (p.Arg121Pro) mutation was inherited from possibly affected mother. Both mutations were absent in 250 healthy Japanese controls. Our study revealed that missense mutations in NFIX were able to cause Sotos-like features. Mutations in DNA-binding/ dimerization domain of NFIX protein also suggest that the transcriptional regulation is abnormally fluctuated because of NFIX abnormalities. In individuals with Sotos-like features unrelated to NSD1 changes, genetic testing of NFIX should be considered.
- DNA-binding/dimerization domain
- Sotos syndrome
- missense mutation
ASJC Scopus subject areas