Microwave synthesis of carbon-coated Ti4O7 nanorods by rapid carbothermal reduction processing

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Carbon-coated Ti4O7 nanorods were synthesized using a carbothermal reduction reaction. With microwave processing, single-phase Ti4O7 was obtained at 975 °C after a holding time of 30 min, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results confirmed that no grain growth occurred. The transmission electron image confirmed that the Ti4O7 nanorods were coated with carbon. In contrast, Ti4O7 and a trace amount of Ti5O9 phase were observed after heating in a tube furnace at 975 °C with a 30 min hold time. In addition, nanorod grain growth clearly occurred, and no carbon coating was observed after heating in the tube furnace heating. These results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone-derived carbon was uniformly coated on pristine TiO2 nanorods via microwave processing, which can achieve about 70 times faster heating than tube-furnace heating. Therefore, the uniform carbon coating inhibited the grain growth of reduced titania at a high temperature. In conclusion, we successfully prepared carbon-coated Ti4O7 nanorods that retained the morphology of the pristine TiO2 nanorods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-33
Number of pages7
JournalChemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar


  • Carbon coating
  • Microwave processing
  • Nanorods
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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