Friction stir welding (FSW) was applied to a 0.53% nitrogen stainless steel. The nitrogen content change and the microstructural evolution in the weld were investigated. The nitrogen content analysis revealed that the stir zone (SZ) showed roughly the same nitrogen content as the base material (BM). This result suggests that FSW is an effective welding process for keeping up nitrogen content of high-nitrogen steel weld. The microstructural observation showed that the weld had the BM, the SZ, the partially recrystallized zone (PRZ) and the heat affected zone (HAZ). The coarse grain structure of the BM changed to relatively fine microstructure of equiaxially recrystallized austenite grain structure in the SZ during FSW. The PRZ contained both the fine and coarse grain structures. The detailed TEM observations showed that the particles with about 1 μm in size were present in the advancing side of the SZ both along grain boundaries and grain interiors. The Cr nitride less than 100 nm was formed in the HAZ along grain boundaries, which indicates that a slight sensitization occurred in the HAZ during FSW.