Microstructural factors governing hardness in friction-stir welds of the solid-solution-hardened Al alloys 1080 and 5083 were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of grain boundary on the hardness was examined in an Al alloy 1080 which did not contain any second-phase particles. The weld of Al alloy 1080 had a slightly greater hardness in the stir zone than the base material. The maximum hardness was located in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The stir zone considered of recrystallized fine grains, while the TMAZ had a recovered grain structure. The increase in hardness in the stir zone can be explained by the Hall-Petch relationship. On the other hand, the hardness profiles in the weld of Al alloy 5083 were roughly homogeneous. Friction-stir welding created the fine recrystallized grains in the stir zone and recovered grains in the TMAZ in the weld of this alloy. The stir zone and the TMAZ had slightly higher dislocation densities than the base material. Many small Al6(Mn,Fe) particles were detected in all the grains of the weld. The hardness profiles could not be explained by the Hall-Petch relationship, but rather by Orowan hardening. The results of the present study suggest that the hardness profile is mainly affected by the distribution of small particles in friction-stir welds of Al alloys containing many such particles.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science|
|Publication status||Published - 2001 Dec|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Metals and Alloys