This study was performed to microscopically observe and measure inflammatory cytokine production by human macrophages phagocytosing submicron titanium (Ti) particles. Observations with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), SEM/electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that macrophages [phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells] at 24 h in culture actively phagocytosed and accumulated submicron Ti particles in intracellular phagosomes, in which refinement of Ti particles occurred. The macrophages were also cultured for 24 h in four media with and without submicron Ti particles and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; components of bacteria). Whilst neither stimulus reduced cell viability, submicron Ti particles and LPS activation independently and synergistically caused the macrophages to produce three inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) at high levels in the culture supernatants. The inflammatory and osteolysis conditions caused by macrophages phagocytosing submicron Ti particles would be worsened by challenge with LPS in patients wearing Ti prostheses.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2010 Jan|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering