Mesozoic origin and 'out-of-India' radiation of ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae)

Kazunori Yamahira, Satoshi Ansai, Ryo Kakioka, Hajime Yaguchi, Takeshi Kon, Javier Montenegro, Hirozumi Kobayashi, Shingo Fujimoto, Ryosuke Kimura, Yusuke Takehana, Davin H.E. Setiamarga, Yasuoki Takami, Rieko Tanaka, Ken Maeda, Hau D. Tran, Noriyuki Koizumi, Shinsuke Morioka, Vongvichith Bounsong, Katsutoshi Watanabe, Prachya MusikasinthornSein Tun, L. K.C. Yun, Kawilarang W.A. Masengi, V. K. Anoop, Rajeev Raghavan, Jun Kitano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The Indian subcontinent has an origin geologically different from Eurasia, but many terrestrial animal and plant species on it have congeneric or sister species in other parts of Asia, especially in the Southeast. This faunal and floral similarity between India and Southeast Asia is explained by either of the two biogeographic scenarios, 'into-India' or 'out-of-India'. Phylogenies based on complete mitochondrial genomes and five nuclear genes were undertaken for ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) to examine which of these two biogeographic scenarios fits better. We found that Oryzias setnai, the only adrianichthyid distributed in and endemic to the Western Ghats, a mountain range running parallel to the western coast of the Indian subcontinent, is sister to all other adrianichthyids from eastern India and Southeast-East Asia. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions reveal that this western Indian species diverged in the late Mesozoic during the northward drift of the Indian subcontinent. These findings indicate that adrianichthyids dispersed eastward 'out-of-India' after the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia, and subsequently diversified in Southeast-East Asia. A review of geographic distributions of 'out-of-India' taxa reveals that they may have largely fuelled or modified the biodiversity of Eurasia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20210212
JournalBiology letters
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 4


  • Eurasia
  • Indian subcontinent
  • Oryzias setnai
  • Western Ghats
  • biodiversity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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