Mesenchymal cell populations, referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), which include bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), umbilical cord stromal cells and adipose stromal cells (ASCs), participate in tissue repair when transplanted into damaged or degenerating tissues. The trophic support and immunomodulation provided by MSCs can protect against tissue damage, and the differentiation potential of these cells may help to replace lost cells. MSCs are easily accessible and can be expanded on a large scale. In addition, BMSCs and ASCs can be harvested from the patient himself. Thus, MSCs are considered promising candidates for cell therapy. In this review, I will discuss recently discovered high-efficiency induction systems for deriving Schwann cells and neurons from MSCs. Other features of MSCs that are important for tissue repair include the self-renewing property of stem cells and their potential for differentiation. Thus, I will also discuss the stemness of MSCs and describe the discovery of a certain stem cell type among adult MSCs that can self-renew and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. Furthermore, I will explore the prospects of using this cell population for cell therapy.
- Bone marrow stromal cells
- Mesenchymal stem cells
- Multilineage- differentiating stress-enduring cells
- Umbilical cord stromal cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas