Mental health of patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Japan: A comparative analysis of employed and unemployed patients

Tomoko Omiya, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Megumi Shimada, Kazuko Ikeda, Seiko Ishiuchi-Ishitani, Yoko Sumikawa Tsuno, Katsumi Ohira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In developed countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease. The aims of this study were to clarify the physical, social, and psychological factors affecting Japanese HIV patients in a stable condition and to identify factors related to mental health of employed and unemployed HIV patients. The target subjects were people with HIV infection who were treated as outpatients at core hospitals for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment in Japan. A questionnaire including items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was sent to each medical facility with a request for participation from the HIV-infected outpatients. Responses from 1199 patients were analyzed. Mental health was reportedly better in the employed patients than in the unemployed patients. The unemployed patients were more likely to have resigned from their jobs because of poor health, to have resigned voluntarily, or to have been unfairly dismissed. Once the patients stopped working because of HIV, returning to work became difficult. In the employed patients, a good workplace environment was strongly related to lower scores on HADS. Higher HADS scores were recorded for employed patients infected with HIV for six years or more. For the unemployed patients, a relationship was observed between strong feelings of stigmatization and HADS scores. Quitting a job because of an experience related to HIV status may be related to feelings of stigmatization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1370-1378
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 2
Externally publishedYes


  • Japan
  • chronic condition
  • employed and unemployed
  • mental health
  • stigma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Mental health of patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Japan: A comparative analysis of employed and unemployed patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this