The reaction of Al and H2O is a promising method for the renewable production of H2 (an environmentally friendly fuel whose combustion produces only water), because it does not directly include fossil fuels conversion. This reaction was studied at extreme pH values as low as 1 and as high as 13.5 with HCl, H2SO4, and NaOH, and at low hydrothermal temperatures of 40-100 °C. Factors such as pH, temperature, and solution medium influenced H2 production, which was considerably greater at higher temperatures and more extreme pH (acidic or alkaline). Alkaline conditions consistently favored more rapid H2 production than acidic conditions. Under the most extreme conditions, the activation energy was ∼60 kJ mol−1 for both acidic and alkaline reactions. A model predicting H2 production in acidic reactions was derived from the reaction mechanism and kinetics. The model yielded a good fit to on-site measurements at the Tamagawa and Zao hot springs in northeast Japan. This study would aid the development of industrial H2 production systems using natural acidic hot springs or alkaline industrial wastewater.
- Hot spring
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology