Renin-angiotensin (RA) system plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Here, we have described the recent progress in our study of renin release as well as the cellular action of angiotensin II. (1) Microdissection of an isolated afferent artery with or without macula densa (MD) has revealed that renin release is regulated by NaCl exposure to MD. Furosemide, prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGI2) and adenosine modulate its function. (2) Angiotensin (ang) II increases cytosolic free calcium and induces the formation of inositolphosphates in vascular smooth muscle cells. Deduced protein structure of ang II receptor (AT1-R) cDNA has indicated the presumed link of AT1-R with phospholipase C. Through the cellular action, ang II has been reported to regulate gene expression.