Mechanism of Apatite Formation on Anodically Oxidized Titanium Metal in Simulated Body Fluid

Hyun Min Kim, Hideki Kaneko, Masakazu Kawashita, Tadashi Kokubo, Takashi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Mechanism of apatite formation on anodically oxidized titanium metal in a simulated body fluid was investigated by XPS and TEM observation. The anodically oxidized metal was found to have rutile and anatase titania with a large number of Ti-OH groups on its surface. On immersion in SBF, the metal formed a bonelike apatite on its surface through formations of an amorphous calcium titanate and an amorphous calcium phosphate. The formation of the calcium titanate was induced by the Ti-OH groups, which reveals negative charge to interact selectively with positively charged calcium ions in the fluid. The calcium titanate is postulated to reveal positive charge, thereby interacting with the negatively charged phosphate ions in the fluid to form the calcium phosphate, which eventually crystallized into bonelike apatite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-744
Number of pages4
JournalKey Engineering Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jan 1
EventThe Annual Meeting of the International Society for Ceramics in Medicine - Porto, Portugal
Duration: 2003 Nov 62003 Nov 9


  • Anodic oxidation
  • Apatite
  • Bioactivity
  • SBF
  • Titania
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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