A scanning nonlinear dielectric microscope (SNDM) probe, called the ε311-type probe, and a system to measure the ferroelectric polarization component parallel to the surface have been developed. This is achieved by measuring the ferroelectric material nonlinear dielectric constant ε311 instead of ε333, which is measured in conventional SNDM. Experimental results show that the probe can satisfactorily detect the direction of the polarization parallel to the surface. Moreover, we propose an advanced measurement technique using a rotating electric field, which can be applied to measure three-dimensional polarization vectors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)