Measurement of myocardial lactate production for diagnosis of coronary microvascular spasm

Jun Takahashi, Akira Suda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroaki Shimokawa

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1 Citation (Scopus)


In about a quarter of patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary arteries, no epicardial spasm is noted on coronary arteriography during an angina attack. Since the pressure-rate product is almost identical at rest and the onset of attack in those patients, the decrease in coronary blood flow rather than increased myocardial oxygen consumption is likely to explain myocardial ischemia, indicating a substantial involvement with coronary microvascular spasm (MVS). Myocardial lactate production, which could be defined as a negative myocardial lactate extraction ratio (ratio of the coronary arterial-venous difference in lactate concentration to arterial concentration), is considered indicative of objective evidence to support the emerging myocardial ischemia. Thus, monitoring of the myocardial lactate production and the emergence of chest pain and ischemic electrocardiographic changes during acetylcholine (ACh) provocation testing is of significant value for detecting the entity of MVS. Practically, 1 min after incremental doses of ACh (20, 50, and 100 μg) are administered into the left coronary artery (LCA), paired samples of 1 mL of blood are collected from the LCA ostium and coronary sinus for measurement of lactate concentration by a calibrated automatic lactate analyzer. Then, the development of MVS could be confirmed by negative myocardial lactate extraction ratio despite the absence of angiographically demonstrable epicardial coronary spasm or before its occurrence throughout ACh provocation testing. In conclusion, assessment of myocardial lactate production is essential and valuable for the diagnosis of MVS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere62558
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number175
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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