Maternal psychological distress, education, household income, and congenital heart defects: a prospective cohort study from the Japan environment and children’s study

The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The influence of maternal psychological distress on infant congenital heart defects (CHDs) has not been thoroughly investigated. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the combined effect of maternal psychological distress and socioeconomic status on infant CHDs. This study aimed to examine whether maternal psychological distress, socioeconomic status, and their combinations were associated with CHD. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which recruited pregnant women between 2011 and 2014. Maternal psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale in the first trimester, while maternal education and household income were evaluated in the second and third trimesters. The outcome of infant CHD was determined using the medical records at 1 month of age and/or at birth. Crude- and confounder-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between maternal psychological distress and education and household income on infant CHD. Results: A total of 93,643 pairs of mothers and infants were analyzed, with 1.1% of infants having CHDs. Maternal psychological distress had a significantly higher odds ratio in the crude analysis but not in the adjusted analysis, while maternal education and household income were statistically insignificant. In the analysis of the combination variable of lowest education and psychological distress, the P for trend was statistically significant in the crude and multivariate model excluding anti-depressant medication, but the significance disappeared in the full model (P = 0.050). Conclusions: The combination of maternal psychological distress and lower education may be a possible indicator of infant CHD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number544
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Birth cohort
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Education
  • Psychological distress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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