Background: Hemorrhagic presentations are rare in vertebrovertebral arteriovenous fistula (VVAVF). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient initially presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and progressing to intramedullary hemorrhage. Case Description: The authors report on a 59-year-old man with VVAVF who developed massive intramedullary hemorrhage. Twelve months before ictus, the patient presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although we recommended endovascular surgery, the patient refused treatment. Twelve months after the initial attack, the massive intramedullary hemorrhage in cervical spinal cord caused complete spinal cord injury. Emergent endovascular intervention was performed after the intramedullary hemorrhage, but there was no neurologic improvement. Conclusions: Identification of this phenomenon is important in VVAVF because intramedullary hemorrhage dramatically degrades patient outcome. Prompt surgical intervention is mandatory for VVAVF cases presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- Intramedullary hemorrhage
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Vertebrovertebral arteriovenous fistula
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology