Background and Objectives: To treat organ transplant patients with mycobacterial infection, physicians need to pay attention to interaction between drugs used against mycobacteria and immunosuppressants. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical features of and treatment for mycobacterial infection in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. Methods: To investigate the incidence, treatment, and outcome for mycobacterial infection, we retrospectively reviewed 100 LTx recipients in our program since 2000. Results: Four recipients (4.0%) developed mycobacterial infection. Three recipients took tacrolimus, and 1 received cyclosporine with mycophenolate mofetil and a steroid for immunosuppression. Tuberculosis (TB) was isolated from 2 recipients, and non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM) was detected in the other 2. We treated the patients with levofloxacin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + ethambutol (EB) for TB and clarithromycin (CLM) + EB for NTM to avoid interaction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI: 8-10 ng/mL in trough level) with rifampicin (RFP). In treating the patients with NTM, we were able to maintain an adequate blood concentration of CNI by decreasing the dosage from one-half to one-quarter. All mycobacterial infections were controlled with treatment. In 1 patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) infected with TB in the native lung, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) unexpectedly increased from 1890 mL before infection to 2320 mL possibly due to organization of the native lung. Conclusions: We were able to manage the mycobacterial infections using drugs other than RFP without any cases of acute rejection under adequate immunosuppression. Organization of the native lung with TB infection unexpectedly resulted in improvement of FEV1 in a COPD patient.
|Number of pages||4|
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Nov|
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