Mammalian X chromosome inactivation evolved as a dosage-compensation mechanism for dosage-sensitive genes on the X chromosome

Eugénie Pessia, Takashi Makino, Marc Bailly-Bechet, Aoife McLysaght, Gabriel A.B. Marais

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    114 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    How and why female somatic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) evolved in mammals remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that XCI is a dosage-compensation mechanism that evolved to equalize expression levels of X-linked genes in females (2X) and males (1X), with a prior twofold increase in expression of X-linked genes in both sexes ("Ohno's hypothesis"). Whereas the parity of X chromosome expression between the sexes has been clearly demonstrated, tests for the doubling of expression levels globally along the X chromosome have returned contradictory results. However, changes in gene dosage during sex-chromosome evolution are not expected to impact on all genes equally, and should have greater consequences for dosage-sensitive genes. We show that, for genes encoding components of large protein complexes (≥ 7 members) - a class of genes that is expected to be dosage-sensitive - expression of X-linked genes is similar to that of autosomal genes within the complex. These data support Ohno's hypothesis that XCI acts as a dosage-compensation mechanism, and allow us to refine Ohno's model of XCI evolution. We also explore the contribution of dosage-sensitive genes to X aneuploidy phenotypes in humans, such as Turner (X0) and Klinefelter (XXY) syndromes. X aneuploidy in humans is common and is known to have mild effects because most of the supernumerary X genes are inactivated and not affected by aneuploidy. Only genes escaping XCI experience dosage changes in X-aneuploidy patients. We combined data on dosage sensitivity and XCI to compute a list of candidate genes for X-aneuploidy syndromes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5346-5351
    Number of pages6
    JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Volume109
    Issue number14
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr 3

    Keywords

    • Balance hypothesis
    • Sex-linked gene expression
    • Y degeneration

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General

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