Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification

Haruhiro Inoue, Makoto Kaga, Haruo Ikeda, Chiaki Sato, Hiroki Sato, Hitomi Minami, Esperanza Grace Santi, Bu’Hussain Hayee, Nikolas Eleftheriadis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent developments in image-enhancement technology have enabled clear visualization of the microvascular structure of the esophageal mucosa. In particular, intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) are observed as brown loops on magnification endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI). IPCLs demonstrate characteristic morphological changes according to the structural irregularity of esophageal epithelium and cancer infiltration, summarized in the IPCL classification. In this review, the process from the first endoscopic description of IPCLs to the eventual development of the IPCL classification is described and discussed, particularly focusing on early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Gastroenterology
Volume28
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Endoscopic mucosal resection
  • Endoscopic submucosal dissection
  • Intrapapillary capillary loop classification
  • Magnification endoscopy
  • Narrow-band imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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