Magnetically Induced Temporal Interference for Focal and Deep-Brain Stimulation

Zonghao Xin, Akihiro Kuwahata, Shuang Liu, Masaki Sekino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has been clinically applied for neural modulation. Conventional TMS systems are restricted by the trade-off between depth penetration and the focality of the induced electric field. In this study, we integrated the concept of temporal interference (TI) stimulation, which has been demonstrated as a non-invasive deep-brain stimulation method, with magnetic stimulation in a four-coil configuration. The attenuation depth and spread of the electric field were obtained by performing numerical simulation. Consequently, the proposed temporally interfered magnetic stimulation scheme was demonstrated to be capable of stimulating deeper regions of the brain model while maintaining a relatively narrow spread of the electric field, in comparison to conventional TMS systems. These results demonstrate that TI magnetic stimulation could be a potential candidate to recruit brain regions underneath the cortex. Additionally, by controlling the geometry of the coil array, an analogous relationship between the field depth and focality was observed, in the case of the newly proposed method. The major limitations of the methods, however, would be the considerable intensity and frequency of the input current, followed by the frustration in the thermal management of the hardware.

Original languageEnglish
Article number693207
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sep 27
Externally publishedYes


  • coil array
  • depth-focality trade-off
  • temporal interference magnetic stimulation
  • temporal interference stimulation
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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