Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect: From fundamentals to applications

K. Uchida, M. Ishida, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, T. Murakami, E. Saitoh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

132 Citations (Scopus)


The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials. When a conductor is attached to a magnet under a temperature gradient, the thermally generated spin voltage in the magnet injects a spin current into the conductor, which in turn produces electric voltage owing to the spin-orbit interaction. The spin Seebeck effect is of increasing importance in spintronics, since it enables direct generation of a spin current from heat and appears in a variety of magnets ranging from metals and semiconductors to insulators. Recent studies on the spin Seebeck effect have been conducted mainly in paramagnetic metal/ferrimagnetic insulator junction systems in the longitudinal configuration in which a spin current flowing parallel to the temperature gradient is measured. This 'longitudinal spin Seebeck effect' (LSSE) has been observed in various sample systems and exclusively established by separating the spin-current contribution from extrinsic artefacts, such as conventional thermoelectric and magnetic proximity effects. The LSSE in insulators also provides a novel and versatile pathway to thermoelectric generation in combination of the inverse spin-Hall effects. In this paper, we review basic experiments on the LSSE and discuss its potential thermoelectric applications with several demonstrations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number343202
JournalJournal of Physics Condensed Matter
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 27


  • spin Seebeck effect
  • spin current
  • spintronics
  • thermoelectric generation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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