This paper presents an approach to mobile robot localization, place recognition and loop closure using a monostatic ultra-wide band (UWB) radar system. The UWB radar is a time-of-flight based range measurement sensor that transmits short pulses and receives reflected waves from objects in the environment. The main idea of the poposed localization method is to treat the received waveform as a signature of place. The resulting echo waveform is very complex and highly depends on the position of the sensor with respect to surrounding objects. On the other hand, the sensor receives similar waveforms from the same positions.Moreover, the directional characteristics of dipole antenna is almost omnidirectional. Therefore, we can localize the sensor position to find similar waveform from waveform database. This paper proposes a place recognitionmethod based on waveform matching, presents a number of experiments that illustrate the high positon estimation accuracy of our UWB radar-based localization system, and shows the resulting loop detection performance in a typical indoor office environment and a forest.