We previously reported that whereas systemic continuous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) accelerated orthodontic tooth movement, systemic but intermittent injection of PTH did not increase the rate of tooth movement. Analysis of these data suggested that continuous administration of PTH could be applicable for orthodontic therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether local and chronic application of PTH(1-34) would accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. To increase the residence time of PTH in the injected area, we used methylcellulose (MC) gel (2% w/v) for a slow-release formulation of PTH. MC gel containing PTH (PTH-MC) continuously released biologically active PTH into the acceptor medium for more than 72 hrs in vitro. When male rats received a local injection of PTH-MC into the subperiosteum in the mesio-palatal region of the maxillary first molar (M1) every other day, M1 movement, which was mesially drawn by an orthodontic coil spring attached to the maxillary incisors, was accelerated in a dose-dependent manner. PTH-MC injection at 1 μg/400 g body weight caused a 1.6-fold increase in the rate of tooth movement. The acceleration of tooth movement by PTH-MC injection was marked on days 6, 9, and 12. Local injection of PTH dissolved in saline without MC did not significantly accelerate tooth movement on day 6 or later. Histological examination revealed active osteoclastic bone resorption and a widened periodontal space on the compression side of the periodontal tissue in the PTH-MC-injected rats. These results suggest that local injection of PTH in a slow-release formulation is applicable to orthodontic therapy.
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