Leukotriene (LT) and lipoxin (LX) levels were monitored in ionophore- stimulated coincubations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and microvascular kidney glomerular endothelial cells (GEN) to determine the profile of lipoxygenase (LO) products generated during cell-cell interactions and the relative contributions of transcellular pathways to LO product biosynthesis in this setting. LTB4 and LTC4 were the major products formed, as determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. LTB4 and LTC4 levels were increased by 23 and 185%, respectively, in coincubations of PMN and GEN, compared with incubations of PMN alone. In contrast, LXA4 and LXB4 levels were not changed in the presence of GEN. These data suggested that GEN utilize PMN-derived LTA4 to generate LT. In keeping with this hypothesis, LT biosynthesis was enhanced if PMN were primed with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that augments LTA4 biosynthesis by activated PMN. The influence of LT on PMN adhesion to GEN was also assessed, since adhesion appears to be a pivotal event in recruitment of PMN in acute glomerulonephritis. Under basal conditions, LTB4 provoked low levels of adhesion via a PMN-directed CD11/CD18-dependent mechanism. The level of adhesion was markedly enhanced by prior priming of PMN with GM-CSF or activation of GEN with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). LTB4 was as potent in this regard as the complement component C5a, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), other mediators that contribute to the entrapment of PMN in inflamed glomeruli. LTC4 also provoked PMN-GEN adhesion via a CD11/CD18-dependent mechanism, but, in contrast to LTB4, via actions with GEN. This action of LTC4 appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by induction of PAF synthesis by GEN. Interestingly, LT-induced PMN-GEN adhesion was markedly attenuated following remodeling of PMN phospholipids with 15(S)- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a product of 15-LO, which has been implicated as an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid in some experimental and human inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that 1) transcellular biosynthetic pathways may amplify the profiles of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to leukocyte recruitment in acute glomerulonephritis and 2) that products of the 5-LO and 15-LO pathways may exert opposing actions on PMN trafficking during glomerular inflammation in vivo.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology|
|Issue number||1 37-1|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
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