Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyses the formation of prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2) and also functions as a transporter for lipophilic ligands, including all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Here, we show that human epidermal melanocytes produce and secrete L-PGDS and PGD 2 in culture medium, whereas L-PGDS is not expressed in human melanoma cell lines, HMV-II, SK-MEL-28, 624 mel and G361. Treatment with RA (1 or 10 μM) for 4 days decreased the proliferation of melanocytes (30 decrease), but not melanoma cells. We therefore isolated L-PGDS-expressing cell lines from 624 mel cells. Treatment with RA decreased the proliferation of L-PGDS-expressing cells by 20, but not mock-transfected cell lines lacking L-PGDS expression. RA induced expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1 in L-PGDS-expressing cells, but not mock-transfected cells. Moreover, RA increased the transient expression of a reporter gene carrying the RA-responsive elements in L-PGDS-expressing cell lines (at least 5-fold activation), compared to the 2-fold activation in mock-transfected cell lines, suggesting that L-PGDS may increase the sensitivity to RA. Lastly, the knockdown of L-PGDS expression by RNA interference was associated with the restoration of the RA-mediated decrease in proliferation of human and mouse melanocytes. In conclusion, L-PGDS may fine-tune the RA signalling in melanocytes.
- all-trans retinoic acid
- lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology