Understanding spatial interactions such as human mobility has been one of the main analytical themes in geography, spatial economics, and traffic engineering for a long time. The intervening opportunities models, including the radiation model, provide a framework to elucidate spatial interactions generated by an individual’s distance-ordered decision-making process. However, such classical definitions of intervening opportunities have often failed to predict realistic flow volumes, particularly for short-distance flows. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a new formulation of intervening opportunities with a kernel function to introduce a fuzziness in spatial search behaviours of destinations, to develop a new variant of the radiation model. The mobility patterns resulting from the modified radiation model that included kernel-based intervening opportunities outperformed the original radiation model when fitted to four datasets of inter-regional flows.
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