The life cycle of calicivirus is not fully understood because most of the viruses cannot be propagated in tissue culture cells. We studied the mechanism of calicivirus entry into cells using feline calicivirus (FCV), a cultivable calicivirus. From the cDNA library of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells, feline junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1), an immunoglobulin-like protein present in tight junctions, was identified as a cellular-binding molecule of the FCV F4 strain, a prototype strain in Japan. Feline JAM-1 expression in nonpermissive hamster lung cells led to binding and infection by F4 and all other strains tested. An anti-feline JAM-1 antibody reduced the binding of FCV to permissive CRFK cells and strongly suppressed the cytopathic effect (CPE) and FCV progeny production in infected cells. Some strains of FCV, such as F4 and F25, have the ability to replicate in Vero cells. We found that regardless of replication ability, FCV bound to Vero and 293T cells via simian and human JAM-1, respectively. In Vero cells, an anti-human JAM-1 antibody inhibited binding, CPE, and progeny production by F4 and F25. In addition, feline JAM-1 expression permitted FCV infection in 293T cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that feline JAM-1 is a functional receptor for FCV, simian JAM-1 also functions as a receptor for some strains of FCV, and the interaction between FCV and JAM-1 molecules may be a determinant of viral tropism. This is the first report concerning a functional receptor for the viruses in the family Caliciviridae.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science