Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the leading cause of graft failure and death in heart transplant (HTx) recipients; however, the association between the etiology of heart failure (ischemic cardiomyopathy [ICM] or non-ICM) that led to HTx and progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and adverse events after HTx has not been explored. Methods and Results: We retrospectively included 165 HTx patients, who were followed-up with at least 2 virtual histology- intravascular ultrasound examinations after HTx, and grouped them as ICM (n=46) or non-ICM (n=119). Coronary artery plaque volume was analyzed using virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound, and cardiovascular event data-a composite of myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure and arrhythmia, revascularization, retransplantation, and death including cardiovascular death-were collected from the medical records of all study subjects. ICM patients had significantly higher plaque volume at both first (P=0.040) and follow-up (P=0.015) intravascular ultrasound examinations. After multivariate adjustment for traditional coronary risk factors, ICM was significantly associated with plaque progression (odds ratio 3.10; CI 1.17 to 9.36; P=0.023). Tenyear cardiovascular event-free survival was 50% in ICM patients compared with 84% in non-ICM patients (log-rank test P=0.003). In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, ICM was significantly associated with a higher event rate after HTx (hazard ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 4.00; P=0.048). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that ischemic etiology of cardiomyopathy prior to HTx may be independently associated with plaque progression and higher event rate after HTx.
- Cardiac allograft vasculopathy
- Ischemic cardiomyopathy
- Nonischemic cardiomyopathy
- Plaque progression
- Virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine