Investigation of precipitation behavior in age-hardenable Cu-Ti alloys by an extraction-based approach

Satoshi Semboshi, Shigeo Sato, Mikio Ishikuro, Kazuaki Wagatsuma, Akihiro Iwase, Takayuki Takasugi

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28 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the precipitation processes in Cu-4 mol pct Ti alloy specimens aged at 723 K (450 °C), by means of X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses of the precipitates extracted from the parent alloy specimens. Aging-induced precipitate particles of a spinodally decomposed disorder, α'; those of a metastable order, β'-Cu4Ti; and those of a stable order, β-Cu4Ti, were continuously formed in the aged specimens. The extraction of the precipitate particles from the aged specimens by submergence in a nitric solution allowed for not only the structural analyses of the constituent precipitate phases but also the quantitative evaluation of their chemical compositions and volume fractions. Early during the aging process, the supersaturated Cu solid solution decomposes spinodally in a continuous manner, and an unstable disorder, α', appears. Then, fine needle-shaped β'-Cu4Ti particles, which have a Ti content of approximately 37.5 mol pct, form in the Cu matrix. During prolonged aging, coarse cellular components composed of the terminal Cu solid solution and stable β-Cu4Ti particles which have a Ti content of 20.5 mol pct nucleate and grow, primarily in the grain boundaries, at the expense of the metastable β'-Cu4Ti particles. The volume fraction of the β'-Cu4Ti particles in the alloy reaches a maximum of approximately 1.7 pct after aging for 24 hours, while that of the β-Cu 4Ti particles increases steadily to more than 18 pct after 480 hours. The volume fraction of the fine β'-Cu4Ti particles in the alloy specimens remained constant throughout the age-hardening, indicating that the hardening is primarily owing to the fine dispersion of the β'-Cu 4Ti particles and not because of the large volume fraction of coarse β-Cu4Ti particles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3401-3411
Number of pages11
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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