Objective: The clinical features and remedies of acute aortic intramural hemorrhage (IMH) are well discussed. This study prospectively analyzes the features compared with those of Type A aortic dissection, and evaluate the treatment modalities and the prognosis with Type A IMH managed by our original program, Eighty-six consecutive patients consisted of acute type A IMH (n=36) and dissection (n=50) were diagnosed between January 1994 and March 2002. Patients with IMH were older (mean 67 and 60, P=0.0017), more hypertensive (P=0.0015), not hyperlipidemic (P=0.0042) than those with dissection. The incidences of preoperative pericardial effusion and aortic regurgitation were significantly lower in patients with intramural hematoma than with dissection, respectively (8:28 versus 22:28, P=0.0366, 4:32 versus 22:28, P=0.0011). Methods: Urgent operation was performed for the patients of IMH with cardiac tamponade or rupture and all dissections. Uncomplicated patients of the patients with IMH were treated medically. Late surgical conversion was applied for the medical treated case on any condition with persistent pain, progression to type A dissection, ruptured aneurysm, or aneurysmal enlargement (>60 mm). Operative mortality, late cardiovascular event, and long-term survival were evaluated statistically. Results: Ten urgent surgical repairs were performed with type A IMH patients and one patient died postoperatively. The rest 26 patients were treated medically. The mean follow up period was 39±28 months. Among the 26 patients, seven were converted surgical intervention. Cardiovascular event free curve on the 26 patients (Kaplan-Meier, CI: 95%) was 65.6% (45.9-85.3), 59.1% (37.5-80.6) at 2, 4 years. There were six dissection and six IMH patients death during follow up. Two of IMH patients died from cardiovascular event. The actuarial survival rate (Kaplan-Meier, CI: 95%) was 87.5% (76.0-99.1):87.9% (66.2-97.1), 81.7% (66.2-97.1):87.9% (78.8-97.0) at 2, 4 years (P=0.8393). Conclusions: Type A IMH tends to occur in older, more hypertensive and not hyperlipidemic patients, showed lower incidences of preoperative aortic valve regurgitation and pericardial effusion than dissection. Medical treatment alone was not enough to manage all type A IMH patients, and 47.2% (17/36) of the patients needed surgical intervention. Urgent surgical repair was not necessary for all type A IMH patients to achieve favorable surgical outcome with careful follow-up using imaging modality.
- Aortic dissection
- Clinical feature
- Intramural hematoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine