BACKGROUND: Low-dose exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides during pregnancy may adversely affect neurodevelopment in children. To evaluate the OP exposure levels, single urine sampling is commonly adopted to measure the levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs), common OP metabolites. However, the inter-day variations of urinary DAP concentrations within subjects are supposed to be large due to the short biological half-lives of the metabolites, and it is thus considered difficult to accurately assess OP exposure during pregnancy with single sampling. This study aimed to assess intra-individual variations of DAP concentrations and the reproducibility of the exposure dose categorization of OPs according to DAP concentration ranges in pregnant women in Japan. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 62 non-smoking pregnant women (12-22 weeks of gestation) living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. First morning void (FMV) and spot urine samples taken between lunch and dinner on the same day were collected on five different days during 2 weeks. The concentrations of DAP and creatinine in urine samples were measured using an ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted concentrations were used for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculations and surrogate category analyses. RESULTS: For all DAP metabolites, the creatinine-adjusted single ICCs exceeded 0.4, indicating moderate reliability. Overall, ICCs of spot urine samples taken in the afternoon were better than those taken as FMV. Surrogate category analyses showed that participants were categorized accurately into four exposure dose groups according to the quartile points. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that a single urine sample taken in the afternoon may be useful in assessing OP exposure as long as the exposure is categorized into quartiles when conducting epidemiological studies in early to mid-pregnant women in Japan.
- Intraclass correlation coefficients
- Organophosphate insecticides
- Pregnant women
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health