Recently it has been found that osteoclast differentiation is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Interleukin (IL)-4 was reported to suppress osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. However, no study has investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-induced osteoclast formation. In this study, we investigated whether IL-4 inhibits TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM). First, IL-4 suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Next, when BMM were cultured with TNF-α, osteoclast-like cells were formed. When they were cultured with both TNF-α and IL-4, osteoclast formation and bone resorption was suppressed by IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner. It has been recently found that TNF-α and RANKL synergistically promote osteoclastogenesis. Finally, we investigated whether IL-4 had the ability to inhibit synergistic TNF-α and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, with the result that it effectively inhibited the synergistic osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that IL-4 can strongly inhibit osteoclast formation that is related to both physiological bone resorption induced by RANKL and pathological bone resorption induced by TNF-α.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy