Interactive Physical ZKP for Connectivity: Applications to Nurikabe and Hitori

Léo Robert, Daiki Miyahara, Pascal Lafourcade, Takaaki Mizuki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Citations (Scopus)


During the last years, many Physical Zero-knowledge Proof (ZKP) protocols for Nikoli’s puzzles have been designed. In this paper, we propose two ZKP protocols for the two Nikoli’s puzzles called Nurikabe and Hitori. These two puzzles have some similarities, since in their rules at least one condition requires that some cells are connected to each other, horizontally or vertically. The novelty in this paper is to propose two techniques that allow us to prove such connectivity without leaking any information about a solution.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConnecting with Computability - 17th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2021, Proceedings
EditorsLiesbeth De Mol, Andreas Weiermann, Florin Manea, David Fernández-Duque
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030800482
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event17th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 2021 Jul 52021 Jul 9

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12813 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference17th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Card-based secure two-party protocols
  • Hitori
  • Nurikabe
  • Puzzle
  • Zero-knowledge proofs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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