Interactive Physical Zero-Knowledge Proof for Norinori

Jean Guillaume Dumas, Pascal Lafourcade, Daiki Miyahara, Takaaki Mizuki, Tatsuya Sasaki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

19 Citations (Scopus)


Norinori is a logic game similar to Sudoku. In Norinori, a grid of cells has to be filled with either black or white cells so that the given areas contain exactly two black cells, and every black cell shares an edge with exactly one other black cell. We propose a secure interactive physical algorithm, relying only on cards, to realize a zero-knowledge proof of knowledge for Norinori. It allows a player to show that he or she knows a solution without revealing it. For this, we show in particular that it is possible to physically prove that a particular element is present in a list, without revealing any other value in the list, and without revealing the actual position of that element in the list.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputing and Combinatorics - 25th International Conference, COCOON 2019, Proceedings
EditorsDing-Zhu Du, Zhenhua Duan, Cong Tian
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030261757
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event25th International Computing and Combinatorics Conference, COCOON 2019 - Xi'an, China
Duration: 2019 Jul 292019 Jul 31

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11653 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference25th International Computing and Combinatorics Conference, COCOON 2019


  • Card-based secure two-party protocols
  • Norinori
  • Puzzle
  • Zero-knowledge proofs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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