Inter- and intra-individual variation of food and nutrient consumption in a rural Japanese population

Keiko Ogawa, Y. Tsubono, Y. Nishino, Y. Watanabe, T. Ohkubo, T. Watanabe, H. Nakatsuka, N. Takahashi, M. Kawamura, I. Tsuji, S. Hisamichi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To determine the relative contribution of intra- and inter-individual variation in the consumption of foods and nutrients. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Two rural towns in the Miyagi Prefecture, a northeastern part of Japan. Subjects: Fifty-nine men and sixty women. Methods: Four 3-d food records were collected in four seasons within a year. The total variance in the consumption of 15 nutrient variables and 16 food groups was partitioned by analysis of variance into its inter-and intra-individual components, separately for men and women. Results: The ratio of the intra- to inter-individual variance was larger than unity in 87% (13/15) of the nutrients in men and 100% (15/15) in women. The ratio was larger for retinol (52.9 in men and ∞ in women) and smallest for carbohydrates (0.8 in men and 1.5 in women). The ratio was larger than unity in 88% (14/16) of the food groups in men and 94% (15/16 in women, which was smallest for cereals (0.6 in men and 0.9 in women). Conclusions: The results were consistent with previous western studies in that intra-individual variation was generally larger than inter-individual Variation fur the consumption of both foods and nutrients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)781-785
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Diet
  • Diet record
  • Food group
  • Nutrient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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