Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an endogenous inhibitor of a major fibrinolytic factor, tissue-type plasminogen activator, can both promote and inhibit angiogenesis. However, the physiologic role and the precise mechanisms underlying the angiogenic effects of PAI-1 remain unclear. In the present study, we report that pharmacologic inhibition of PAI-1 promoted angiogenesis and prevented tissue necrosis in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia. Improved tissue regeneration was due to an expansion of circulating and tissue-resident granulocyte-1 marker (Gr-1 +) neutrophils and to increased release of the angiogenic factor VEGF-A, the hematopoietic growth factor kit ligand, and G-CSF. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated increased amounts of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in ischemic gastrocnemius muscle tissues of PAI-1 inhibitor-treated animals. Abneutralization and genetic knockout studies indicated that both the improved tissue regeneration and the increase in circulating and ischemic tissue-resident Gr-1 + neutrophils depended on the activation of tissue-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and on VEGF-A and FGF-2. These results suggest that pharmacologic PAI-1 inhibition activates the proangiogenic FGF-2 and VEGF-A pathways, which orchestrates neutrophil-driven angiogenesis and induces cell-driven revascularization and is therefore a potential therapy for ischemic diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology