Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces not only innate but also adaptive immune responses, and has been suggested to exert adjuvant effects. Additional to such positive effects, pre-stimulation of TLR4 induces endotoxin tolerance where animals are unresponsive to subsequent lethal challenges with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined the effects of pre-stimulation of TLR4 using an agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb (UT12) on antibody production in vivo. Pre-injection of UT12 prior to both primary and secondary immunization completely inhibited antigen-specific antibody responses. Cellular analysis revealed that the inhibition was not due to impairment of T-cell activation. Accordingly, T-helper activities in UT12 pre-injected mice were not impaired. In contrast, B-cell priming was defective in UT12 pre-injected mice. The observation that the expression of activation markers such as CD69 and CD86 on B cells was blocked by UT12 pre-injection supports this. Interestingly, UT12 pre-injection only showed inhibitory effects at the primary and not the secondary immunization. These results provide important information concerning the regulatory mechanisms of antibody production, especially in endotoxin-tolerant states.
- Agonistic monoclonal antibody
- Endotoxin tolerance
- Innate immunity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy