Influence of renewable energy power fluctuations on water electrolysis for green hydrogen production

Hirokazu Kojima, Kensaku Nagasawa, Naoto Todoroki, Yoshikazu Ito, Toshiaki Matsui, Ryo Nakajima

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The development of renewable energy technologies is essential to achieve carbon neutrality. Hydrogen can be stably stored and transported in large quantities to maximize power utilization. Detailed understanding of the characteristics and operating methods of water electrolysis technologies, in which naturally intermittent fluctuating power is used directly, is required for green hydrogen production, because fluctuating power-driven water electrolysis processes significantly differ from industrial water electrolysis processes driven by steady grid power. Thus, it is necessary to overcome several issues related to the direct use of fluctuating power. This article reviews the characteristics of fluctuating power and its generation as well as the current status and issues related to the operation conditions, water electrolyzer configuration, system requirements, stack/catalyst durability, and degradation mechanisms under the direct use of fluctuating power sources. It also provides an accelerated degradation test protocol method for fair catalyst performance comparison and share of effective design directions. Finally, it discusses potential challenges and recommendations for further improvements in water electrolyzer components and systems suitable for practical use, suggesting that a breakthrough could be realized toward the achievement of a sustainable hydrogen-based society.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4572-4593
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 8
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon neutrality
  • Durability
  • Hydrogen
  • Renewable energy
  • Water electrolyzer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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