Influence of crystalline phase transformation induced by airborne-particle abrasion and low-temperature degradation on mechanical properties of dental zirconia ceramics stabilized with over 5 mol% yttria

Keisuke Nakamura, Aria Tarkeshi, Alexander Niklasson, Shunichi Shishido, Per Svanborg, Sargon Barkarmo, Ulf Örtengren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Monolithic dental prostheses fabricated from 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (5YZ) have been developed to improve the translucency of conventional 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of airborne-particle abrasion (APA) and low-temperature degradation (LTD) on the mechanical properties of 5YZ in association with the crystalline phase transformation. In total, 120 disc-shaped specimens of two brands of 5YZ (Lava Esthetic and Katana UTML) were prepared. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 15 for each group): (i) control, (ii) APA, (iii) LTD, and (iv) APA + LTD groups. APA was performed with 50 μm alumina particles, and LTD was induced by autoclaving at 134 °C for 50 h. The biaxial flexural strength of the specimens was assessed using a piston-on-three-ball test according to ISO 6872:2015, and Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester. The crystalline phase was analyzed by the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns. APA significantly increased the flexural strength of the Lava Esthetic specimens, whereas LTD hardly affected the strength of both materials. APA and APA + LTD significantly increased the Vickers hardness of both materials. According to Rietveld analysis, the pseudocubic phase was predominant in both materials, i.e., 66 mass% and 81 mass% in the Lava Esthetic and Katana UTML specimens, respectively. APA induced the rhombohedral phase at approximately 37 mass% in both materials, while LTD induced the monoclinic phase at 2.8 mass% in the Lava Esthetic specimens and 0.9 mass% in the Katana UTML specimens. APA + LTD weakly affected the amount of the rhombohedral phase but slightly increased the amount of the monoclinic phase. These findings suggest that APA may improve the mechanical properties of 5YZ, particularly hardness, via the generation of the rhombohedral phase. In contrast, the influence of LTD on the mechanical and microstructural properties of 5YZ was limited.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104890
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Volume125
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan

Keywords

  • 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia
  • Airborne-particle abrasion
  • Biaxial flexural strength
  • Crystalline structure
  • Low-temperature degradation
  • Monolithic zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

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