We recently developed a porcine model in which chronic, local treatment with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) causes coronary arteriosclerosis-like changes and hyperconstrictive responses. This study was designed to examine whether or not other major inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α)] might also cause similar coronary responses and whether those responses are associated with alterations in the smooth-muscle phenotypes. A segment of the porcine coronary artery was aseptically wrapped with cotton mesh, absorbing IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-1α. Two weeks after the operation, coronary arteriography showed the development of mild stenotic lesions at the cytokine-treated sites, where hyperconstrictive responses were repeatedly induced by intracoronary serotonin or histamine. Histologically mild intimal thickening was noted at those cytokine-treated sites. Immunostaining and immunoblotting demonstrated that all three myosin heavy chain isoforms, SM1, SM2 (smooth-muscle type), and SMemb (nonmuscle type), were noted in the normal coronary segments, whereas in the segments treated with inflammatory cytokines, SM1 and SM2 were markedly reduced, and only SMemb was noted. These results indicate that inflammatory cytokines all have a similar ability to induce coronary arteriosclerosis-like changes and hyperconstrictive responses, which are associated with alterations in smooth-muscle phenotypes toward dedifferentiation.
- Tumor necrosis factor- α
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine