24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), which is enzymatically produced in the brain, has an important role in maintaining brain cholesterol homeostasis. We have previously reported that 24S-OHC induces necroptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which 24S-OHC-induced cell death occurs. We found that lipid droplets formed at the early stages in the treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 24S-OHC. These lipid droplets could be almost completely eliminated by treatment with a specific inhibitor or by siRNA knockdown of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1). In association with disappearance of lipid droplets, cell viability was recovered by treatment with the inhibitor or siRNA for ACAT1. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we confirmed that 24S-OHC-treated cells exhibited accumulation of 24S-OHC esters but not of cholesteryl esters and confirmed that accumulation of 24S-OHC esters was reduced when ACAT1 was inhibited. 24S-OHC induced apoptosis in T-lymphoma Jurkat cells, which endogenously expressed caspase-8, but did not induce apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, which expressed no caspase-8. In Jurkat cells treated with the pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD and in caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells, 24S-OHC was found to induce caspase-independent cell death, and this was partially but significantly inhibited by Necrostatin-1. Similarly, knockdown of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3, which is one of the essential kinases for necroptosis, significantly suppressed 24S-OHC-induced cell death in Jurkat cells treated with ZVAD. These results suggest that 24S-OHC can induce apoptosis or necroptosis, which of the two is induced being determined by caspase activity. Regardless of the presence or absence of ZVAD, 24S-OHC treatment induced the formation of lipid droplets and cell death in Jurkat cells, and this was suppressed by treatment with ACAT1 inhibitor. Collectively, these results suggest that it is ACAT1-catalyzed 24S-OHC esterification and the resulting lipid droplet formation that is the initial key event which is responsible for 24S-OHC-induced cell death.
- Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase
- Lipid droplets
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research