Individually wide range of renal motion evaluated by four-dimensional computed tomography

Hideomi Yamashita, Mami Yamashita, Masahiko Futaguchi, Ryousuke Takenaka, Shino Shibata, Kentaro Yamamoto, Akihiro Nomoto, Akira Sakumi, Satoshi Kida, Yoshihiro Kaneko, Shigeharu Takenaka, Takashi Shiraki, Keiichi Nakagawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Assessment of physiologic renal motion in order to optimize abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with a median age of 47 years underwent computed tomography simulation and four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition. Thirty-nine kidneys were contoured during ten phases of respiration to estimate renal motion. Results: Kidney motion was not related to age (p = 0.42), sex (p = 0.28), height (p = 0.75), or body weight (p = 0.63). The average +/- standard deviation (SD) of movement of the center of gravity for all subjects was 11.1 +/- 4.8 mm in the cranio-caudal (CC) direction (range, 2.5-20.5 mm), 3.6 +/- 2.1 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction (range, 0.6-8.0 mm), and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mm in the right-left (RL) direction (range, 0.4-5.9 mm). Renal motion strongly correlated with the respiratory phases (r > 0.97 and p < 0.01 in all three directions). Conclusions: Renal motion was independent of age, sex, height, or body weight. Renal motion in all directions was strongly respiration dependent, but motion in the cranio-caudal direction showed wide individual variation. In a clinical setting, it will be necessary to evaluate renal respiratory motion separately in each individual.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Four-dimensional computed tomography
  • Kidney mobility
  • Organ motion
  • Respiration
  • SRT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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