Inclusion and Microstructure Characteristics in Steels with TiN Additions

Wangzhong Mu, Pär Göran Jönsson, Hiroyuki Shibata, Keiji Nakajima

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)


    The quantitative analysis of inclusion and microstructure characteristics in the steels with TiN additions has been studied. The typical inclusion was detected to be a TiN + Mn-Al-Si-Ti-O + MnS phase. This identification was based on the measurements of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), which equipped wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS), and equilibrium calculations by using the commercial software Thermo-Calc. TiN was found to be the effective nucleation site for the formation of intragranular ferrite (IGF). Furthermore, the increased inclusion size led to the increased probability of IGF nucleation. In addition, this probability of IGF nucleation was slightly decreased with the increased sulfur content. This tendency could fit the tendency of the area fraction of IGF in the steels containing different sulfur contents. The present work provides a quantitative study of inclusion and microstructure characteristics in the steels with TiN additions. The effect of inclusion size on the probability of IGF nucleation in the present samples is mainly focused to be discussed. This figure shows a binary image of the typical microstructure containing intragranular ferrite and grain boundary ferrite in this work.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)339-348
    Number of pages10
    JournalSteel Research International
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1


    • inclusion size
    • intragranular ferrite
    • nucleation
    • sulfur
    • titanium nitride

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
    • Metals and Alloys
    • Materials Chemistry


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