Infections caused by implants used for bone replacement often lead to revision surgery and delayed recovery. The use of implant materials that exhibit antibacterial activity is an effective method for decreasing the rate of such infections. Ag is widely used for fabricating implants because of its antibacterial properties. In this study, calcium phosphate powders with various Ag contents were synthesized by a precipitation method and sintered at 1373 K in air for 24 h to form compacts of biphasic hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or single phase β-TCP. The in vitro dissolution test of sintered compacts was conducted in Tris-HCl solution (Tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane). An Escherichia coli suspension was used for the antibacterial tests. Cytotoxicity of sintered compacts toward V79 fibroblasts was evaluated. During the in vitro dissolution test of Ag-containing calcium phosphate sintered compacts, the amount of Ag ions in Tri-HCl solution initially increased and then decreased because of AgCl precipitation. The antibacterial activity of Ag-incorporated single β-TCP was clearly observed, and higher than that of the biphasic HA/β-TCP. No cytotoxicity toward V79 fibroblasts was detected for Ag-incorporated β-TCP sintered compacts.