In-Situ transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy observation of TiN grown by N-implantation

Yoshitaka Kasukabe, Hiromitsu Tani, Hiroaki Abe, Yukio Yamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nitrogen ions (N2+) with 62 keV were implanted into evaporated-Ti films in the 400 kV analytical and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with ion accelerators at JAERI-Takasaki. Observations by in-situ TEM equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, along with the discrete variational Xα molecular orbital calculations, revealed changes in the crystallographic and electronic structures of evaporated-Ti films due to N-implantation. A (001)-oriented NaCl-type TiNy. is epitaxially formed by the transformation of (03.5)-oriented hcp-Ti to (001)-oriented fcc-Ti and by the occupation of N in the octahedral (O-) sites, whereas a (110)-oriented TiNy is formed by nitriding a (110)-oriented TiHx. The release of H from the TiHx occurs preferentially rather than the occupation of N in the O-sites of fcc-Ti sublattice. The loss peak due to volume plasmon of areas where TiHx has grown in the as-grown Ti film shifts to lower loss energy in the early N-implanting stage, while that of areas, where hcp-Ti has grown, gradually shifts to higher loss energies with increasing N dose. Analysis of Mulliken bond overlap populations determines that occupation of N in the O-sites gives rise to weakening Ti-Ti bonds and formation of Ti-N covalent bonds. The growth process of TiNy accompanied by changes of the crystallographic and electronic structures of Ti films due to N-implantation is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4395-4399
Number of pages5
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers
Volume39
Issue number7 B
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Dec 1

Keywords

  • EELS
  • Evaporated Ti films
  • Hcp-Ti
  • Molecular orbital calculations
  • N-implantation
  • Nitriding
  • TEM
  • TiN
  • Transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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