After disasters, people are often forced to reconstruct or move to new residences. This study aimed to reveal the association between the types of reconstructed residences and psychosocial or psychiatric conditions among the population. A total of 1071 adult residents in a coastal town, whose houses were destroyed by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, enrolled in the study five years after the disaster. The type of reconstructed post-disaster residences (reconstructed on the same site/disaster-recovery public condominium/mass-translocation to higher ground/privately moving to remote areas) and the current psychosocial indicators were investigated. The results revealed that individuals living in public condominiums showed significantly worse scores on the Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (p < 0.0001) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (p < 0.0001), and slightly worse scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (p = 0.035) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (p = 0.028). Lower psychosocial indicator scores in the public condominium group were more remarkable in younger adults aged < 65 years. Insomnia evaluated using the Athens Insomnia Scale was not different among the four residential types. In summary, residents moving into disaster-recovery public condominiums are likely to have less social interaction, be more depressed, and may need additional interventions.
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