Impact of taste/smell disturbances on dietary intakes and cachexia-related quality of life in patients with advanced cancer

Hiroyuki Otani, Koji Amano, Tatsuya Morita, Tomofumi Miura, Naoharu Mori, Ryohei Tatara, Takaomi Kessoku, Yoshinobu Matsuda, Keita Tagami, Masanori Mori, Tomohiko Taniyama, Nobuhisa Nakajima, Erika Nakanishi, Jun Kako, Akemi Naito Shirado, Naosuke Yokomichi, Mitsunori Miyashita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Taste and smell are used to enjoy meals; however, impairments of these sensory perceptions seriously impact health and eating habits. This study is aimed at investigating the impact of taste and smell disturbances on dietary intakes and cachexia-related quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced cancer. Methods: Using a self-report questionnaire, we surveyed patients with advanced cancer undergoing treatment at 11 palliative care centers. Multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the impact of taste and smell disturbances on dietary intakes and cachexia-related QOL. Dietary intakes were assessed using the Ingesta-Verbal/Visual Analog Scale, while taste and smell disturbances were assessed using an 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Cachexia-related QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy Anorexia Cachexia Subscale (FAACT ACS). Results: Overall, 378 patients provided consent to participate. After excluding patients with missing data, data were analyzed for 343 patients. Among them, 35.6% (n = 122; 95% [confidence interval (CI)] 0.28–0.38) and 20.9% (n = 72; 95% CI 0.17–0.25) experienced disturbances in taste (NRS ≥ 1) and smell (NRS ≥ 1), respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that, independent of performance status and cancer cachexia, taste and smell disturbances were significantly associated with worse dietary intakes and deteriorating FAACT ACS scores. Conclusion: More severe taste and smell disturbances were associated with poorer dietary intakes and cachexia-related QOL. Diagnosing and treating such disturbances may improve dietary intakes and cachexia-related QOL, regardless of performance status and cachexia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number141
JournalSupportive Care in Cancer
Volume31
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb

Keywords

  • Cachexia
  • Cancer
  • Dietary intake
  • Quality of life
  • Smell disturbance
  • Taste disturbance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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