Objective: The study objective was to examine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality rate of acute exacerbation of interstitial lung diseases in patients with lung cancer undergoing pulmonary resection in a large-scale multi-institutional cohort. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1763 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had undergone pulmonary resection and presented with a clinical diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases between January 2000 and December 2009 at 61 hospitals in Japan. The incidence and outcomes of acute exacerbation within 30 days from the operation were investigated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors of acute exacerbation. Results: Acute exacerbation occurred in 164 patients (9.3%; 95% confidence interval, 8.0-10.8), with a mortality rate of 43.9%, and was the top cause of 30-day mortality (71.7%). The following 7 independent risk factors of acute exacerbation were identified: surgical procedures, male sex, history of exacerbation, preoperative steroid use, serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 levels, usual interstitial pneumonia appearance on computed tomography scan, and reduced percent predicted vital capacity. Surgical procedures showed the strongest association with acute exacerbation (using wedge resection as the reference, lobectomy or segmentectomy: odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-7.57; bi-lobectomy or pneumonectomy: odds ratio, 5.70; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-13.7; P <.001). The effect of perioperative prophylactics, such as steroids and sivelestat, was not confirmed in this study. Conclusions: Pulmonary resection for patients with lung cancer with interstitial lung diseases may provoke acute exacerbation at a substantially high rate and has high associated mortality. Surgical procedures that proved to be a risk factor for acute exacerbation should be chosen cautiously for these high-risk patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine