Whole cells of a clinical isolate (strain S-3) of the genes Capnocytophaga were divided into cell envelope (CE) and cytoplasm (CP) fractions by mechanical disintegration followed by differential centrifugation, and a part of the CE fraction was further fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment into the peptidoglycan and SDS-supernatant fractions. The other part of the CE was extracted with butanol-water or hot phenol-water to isolate butanol-lipopolysaccharide and phenol-lipopolysaccharide, respectively. All of the test fractions except CP exhibited multifold immunomodulating activities, namely, the adjuvant activities to cellular as well as humoral immune responses against ovalbumin in guinea pigs, the mitogenicity on splenocytes of guinea pigs and BALB/c mice (but not on their thymocytes), the stimulation of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages (in terms of increased glucosamine uptake), and the activation of the human complement system through alternative as well as classical pathways. In addition, the test fractions other than the CP evoked dermatoxic reactions on rabbit skin with characteristic variations among them. The immunomodulating activities of SDS-supernatant were noteworthy in view of the fact that this fraction was essentially free of muramic acid and diaminopimelic acid and did not cause the gelation of horseshoe crab amoebocyte lysate except when it was used at the very high dose, suggesting that there was practically no contamination by peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides in the SDS-supernatant.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases