Immune response involving various immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and subtypes to microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis and disease activity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). To clarify the presence of Ig-coated bacteria in the intestine and its association with disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), we extracted and classified Ig-coated bacteria from fecal samples of 42 patients with IBD and 12 healthy controls (HCs) using flow cytometry and 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis. The percentage of bacteria coated with IgA and IgM was higher in patients with IBD than in HCs, and IgG-coated bacteria were found only in patients with IBD. Moreover, the percentages of bacteria coated with IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgM in UC samples and IgG3, IgG4, and IgM in CD samples were correlated with disease activities. The proportions of Bacteroides ovatus and Streptococcus increased during the active phase of CD. Hence, the detailed analysis of Ig-coated bacteria and Ig subtypes using flow cytometry could aid in developing useful indicators of disease activity and identifying more disease-related bacteria, which could become novel treatment targets for IBDs.
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